Bitcoin (BTC) is up 12% this month in part due to thin liquidity

on Jun26
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Bitcoin has rallied sharply this month — but not for reasons you might think.

The world’s largest digital currency has risen more than 12% since the beginning of June. On Wednesday, its price topped $30,000 to hit its highest level since April 14, according to Coin Metrics data.

Market players have attributed the jump to the news that U.S. asset management giant BlackRock had filed for a spot bitcoin exchange-traded fund tracking the market price of the underlying asset.

While that may be part of the reason, the outsized moved can be put down to another factor beyond the news flow surrounding large institutions taking steps to embrace bitcoin or other digital assets.

Thin liquidity and big players

Crypto “market depth” has been sitting at very low levels this year. Market depth refers to a market’s ability to absorb relatively large buy and sell orders. When market depth is low and big players put in orders to buy or sell digital coins, prices can move in a big way up or down, even if the orders are not that huge.

Market depth is a measure of liquidity in a market.

According to data firm Kaiko, bitcoin’s market depth has fallen 20% since the start of this year. Bitcoin has been one of the hardest-hit cryptocurrencies in terms of market depth, Kaiko said.

The market depth of bitcoin at a 1% range from the mid price has fallen about 20% since the start of the year, according to data firm Kaiko.


“Bitcoin’s recent surge in value has largely been driven by large trades within a less liquid market,” Jamie Sly, head of research at CCData, told CNBC via email.

“Our analysis of market orders over 5 BTC reveals an aggressive surge in market buying, suggesting large players are seeking to gain exposure to digital assets.”

“When combining large orders with thin books, the market is subject to more volatile movements,” Sly added.

That lack of liquidity has in part been driven by the regulatory scrutiny of the crypto industry from U.S. authorities. The Securities and Exchange Commission has sued major exchanges such as Coinbase and Binance.

Low liquidity, which has been a feature of the crypto market all year, is also partly behind bitcoin’s 80% year-to-date rally.

Retail traders aren’t back — yet

Another notable feature of the current crypto market is the low volumes being traded on exchanges.

Daily trading volume in the cryptocurrency currently sits at around $24 billion, according to crypto data website CoinGecko.

That’s down markedly from the more than $100 billion of overall trading volume in bitcoin during the peak of the 2021 crypto rally, when bitcoin rose close to an all-time high of nearly $69,000.

Large crypto investors usually hope that an early surge in prices will be enough to tempt retail investors back into participating in the rally which ultimately boosts prices for bitcoin and other digital coins. But that hasn’t happened.

“What is notable about this rally is that trade volumes overall are at multi-year lows, and we are only seeing a slight increase, which even then is far lower than levels we saw from January to March,” Clara Medalie, director of research at Kaiko, told CNBC.

“I think trading volumes and price volatility are two of the most telling indicators of crypto market activity. Both volatility and volumes are at multi-year lows, and even a rapid increase in price is not enough to draw traders in.”

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“Bitcoin and ether are both being manipulated in this way by the professional traders. They don’t trade most of the time, they wait until there’s a bit of good news,” Alexander said.

“Then they’ll sell the top and you’ve got a sideways market.”

Indeed, bitcoin has traded within a range this year, and attempts to burst significantly higher have been thwarted.

Alexander thinks bitcoin is likely to trade within a range of between $25,000 and $30,000 for the remainder of the summer.

She expects, however, that toward the end of the year, the cryptocurrency will climb toward $50,000, citing attempts from larger market players to prop up the market, with big purchases making outsized moves.

“It’s not a market for ordinary clients. It’s really is not,” she warned.

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